Dermatology is the branch of medicine dealing with the skin, nails, hair and its diseases. It is a specialty with both medical and surgical aspects. A dermatologist is a doctor that treats diseases, in the widest sense, and some cosmetic problems of the skin, scalp, hair, and nails.


The skin loses melanin, leading to patches of lighter colored skin.


One of the most common diseases in the U.S., acne is a disease affecting the oil glands of the skin. It has a range of causes that lead to many different kinds of pimples. Acne can result in depression, low self-esteem, and scarring.

Dermatitis and eczema:

Dermatitis is inflammation of the skin. It typically leads to swelling with an itchy rash. Dermatitis takes different forms, including contact dermatitis, seborrheic dermatitis, and atopic dermatitis. Each affects the skin differently.

Fungal infections:

Fungus can infect the skin, nails, and hair. Fungal infections are common, and symptoms are normally mild. They can cause more serious symptoms for people with reduced immunity. A group of yeasts called Candida can cause a wide range of infections, including oral thrush and balanitis.

Hair disorders:

The loss of hair may be the result of an underlying condition, such as alopecia, or an isolated issue. Hair can also be affected by head lice.

Nail problems:

Dermatologists also treat conditions affecting the nails. These complaints often consist of fungal infections and ingrowing toenails. Nail problems can be indicative of other underlying conditions.


This is a chronic, autoimmune skin disorder that speeds up the growth of skin cells. This rapid growth results in thick, red skin and silvery scales. There are several different types of psoriasis. Psoriasis can sometimes have a similar appearance to eczema.


Rosacea causes redness in the face, similar to blushing. Small, pus-filled bumps often appear, and rosacea can also lead to visible blood vessels and swollen eyelids. Rosacea can spread from the nose and cheeks to the forehead, chin, ears, chest, and back. Women with fair skin who are in middle-aged most often experience rosacea.

Skin cancer:

The most common forms of skin cancer are basal cell carcinoma (BCC), melanoma, and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Early treatment can resolve most skin cancers.

Shingles or herpes zoster:

This viral infection affects the nerve endings in the skin and causes a painful rash. Although the condition clears after a few weeks without treatment, intervention is recommended to speed up recovery and prevent long-lasting pain, numbness, and itching after the disease has gone. Shingles can also potentially damage the eyes.


These are contagious, benign skin growths that appear when a virus infects the top layer of skin. Warts may indicate an underlying issue with immunity, but they often resolve without treatment. A dermatologist can use a variety of treatments to remove persistent warts.

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